Article Correctness Is Author's Responsibility: Disaggregating behavioral and psychological components of religious and spiritual development across adolescence: Variations by geographic location.

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Religious behavior and spirituality are associated with a variety of positive youth outcomes including higher levels of academic achievement and community service, and lower levels of illicit substance use. However, few studies have investigated whether religious behavior and spirituality are uniquely and interactively associated with adolescent outcomes or whether religious behavior and spirituality are differentially protective across rural and city contexts. Participants were 743 youth from a midsized university city community (n = 367) and a rural community (n = 376) in a mid-Atlantic state (Mage = 15.87, SD = 1.28). Religious behavior was positively associated with community service, but the association between religious behavior and adolescent grade point average was moderated by adolescent spirituality. Religious behavior was only associated with greater grade point average for youth who were high in spirituality. In addition, religious behavior was associated with reduced illicit substance use for rural youth, while spirituality was associated with reduced illicit substance use for city youth who reported high levels of religious behavior. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved)